Assessing Machine Learning Outputs

One of the challenges that we face with our Labs project is presentation of the Machine Learning results.  We thought there would be many out of the box tools to help with this, but we have not found this to be the case.

If we use the AWS console Rekognition service interface for example, we get presented with results, but they are not provided in a way that will readily allow us and our project participants to assess them. Here is a screenshot of an image from Cardiff University – an example of out of the box use of AWS Rekognition:

Excavation at Stonehenge, Cardiff University Photographic Archive

This is just one result – but we want to present the results from a large collection of images. Ideally we would run the image recognition on all of the Cardiff images, and/or on the images from one collection, assess the results within the project team and also present them back to our colleagues at Cardiff.

The ML results are actually presented in JSON:

Excerpt from JSON showing ML output

Here you can see some of the terms identified and the confidence scores.

These particular images, from the University archive, are catalogued to item level. That means they may not benefit so much from adding tags or identifying objects. But they are unlikely to have all the terms (or ‘labels’ in ML parlance) that the Rekognition service comes up with.  Sometimes the things identified are not what a cataloguer would necessarily think to add to a description. The above image is identified as ‘outdoors’, ‘ground’ and ‘soil. These terms could be useful for a researcher. Just identifying photographs with people in them could potentially be useful.

Another example below is of a printed item – a poem.

Up in the Wind, Papers of Edward Thomas, Cardiff University

Strange formatting of the transcript aside, the JSON below shows the detected text (squirrels), confidence and area of the image where the word is located.

Detected word ‘squirrels’

If this was provided to the end user, then anyone interested in squirrels in literature (surely there must be someone…) can find this digital content.  

But we have to figure out how to present results and what functionality is required. It reminds me of using Open Refine to assess person name matches.  The interface provides for a human eye to assess and confirm or reject the results.

Screenshot of names matching using Open Refine
Screenshot of names matching using Open Refine

We want to be able to lead discussions with our contributors on the usefulness, accuracy, bias – lack of bias – and peculiarities of machine learning, and for that a usable interface is essential.

How we might knit this in with the Hub description is something to consider down the line. The first question is whether to use the results of ML at all.  However, it is hard to imagine that it won’t play a part as it gets better at recognition and classification.  Archvists often talk about how they don’t have time to catalogue. So it is arguable that machine learning, even if the results are not perfect, will be an improvement on the backlogs that we currently have.    

AWS Rekognition tools

We have thought about which tools we would like to use and we are currently creating a spreadsheet of the images we have from our participants and which tools to use with each group of images.

Some tools may seem less likely, for example, image moderation. But with the focus on ethics and sensitive data, this could be useful for identifying  potentially offensive or controversial images.

blanked out image
Blanked out image

The Image Moderation tool recognises nudity in the above image. 

confidence scores for nudity
The confidence scores are high that this image represents nudity

This could be carried through to the end user interface, and a user could click on ‘view content’ if they chose to do so.

image of nude
Art Design and Architecture Collection, Glasgow School of Art (NMC/1137)

The image moderation tool may classify images art images as sensitive when they are very unlikely to cause offence.  The tools may not be able to distinguish offensive nudity from classical art nudity. With training it is likely to improve, but when you think about it, it is not always an easy line for a human to draw.

Face comparison could potentially be useful where you want to identify individuals and instances of them within a large collection of photographs for example, so we might try that out.  

However, we have decided that we won’t be using ‘celebrity recognition’, or ‘PPE detection’ for this particular project!

Text and Images

We are particularly interested in text and in text within images.  It might be a way to connect images, and we might be able to pull the text out to be used for searching.

Suffice to say that text will be very variable. We ran Transkribus Lite on some materials.

Transkribus on a handwritten letter
Letter from the Papers of Edward Thomas at Cardiff University

We compared this to use of AWS Text Rekognition.

Transkribus on a handwritten letter
Letter from the Papers of Edward Thomas at Cardiff University

These examples illustrate the problem with handwritten documents. Potentially the model could be trained to work better for handwriting, but this may require a very large amount of input data given the variability of writing styles.

Transkribus on a typescript letter
Poem from the Papers of Edward Thomas, Cardiff University

Transkribus has transcribed this short typescript text from the same archive well.  One word ‘house’ has been transcribed as ‘housd’ and ‘idea’ caused a formatting issue, but overall a good result.

Transkribus on a poster
Poster from the Design Archive, University of Brighton Design Archives

The above example is Transkribus Lite on a poster from the University of Brighton Design Archives.  In archives, many digital items are images with text – particularly collections of posters or flyers. Transkribus has not done well with this (though this is just using the Lite version out of the box).  

Rekognition on a poster

We also tried this with the AWS Rekognition Text tool, and it worked well.

Another example of images with text is maps and plans.

Lambeth Palace map of London
19th century map of Clerkenwell, Lambeth Palace Archive
JSON output showing place name
JSON output showing place name

Above are two examples of places identified from the plan output in JSON. If we can take these outputs and add them to our search interface, an end user could search for ‘clerkenwell’ or ‘northampton square’ and find this plan.  

Questions we currently have:

  • How do we present the results back to the project team?
  • How do we present the results to the participants?
  • Do we ask participants specific questions in order to get structured feedback?
  • Will we get text that is useful enough to go to the next step?
  • Which images provide good text and which don’t?
  • How might they results be used on the Archives Hub to help with discovery?

As we progress the work, we will start to think about organising a workshop for participants to get their feedback on the ML outputs.

Machine Learning: Training the Model

A recent OCLC paper by Thomas Padilla highlights the need for ‘Pilot collaborations between institutions with representative collections’ and working ‘to share source data and produce “gold standard” training data.

We think that the Archives Hub Labs project exemplifes Tom’s suggested approach by working with ten of our contributing institutions from across the UK, reflecting a variety of archives.

However, it is also surely true that cultural heritage will need to engage with the broader AI and ML communities to understand and benefit fully from the range of ML services such as translation, transcription, object identification and facial recognition:

‘Advances in all of these areas are being driven and guided by the government or commercial sectors, which are infinitely better funded  than cultural memory; for example, many nation-states and major corporations are intensively interested  in facial recognition. The key strategy for the cultural memory sector will be to exploit these advantages, adapting and tuning the technologies around the margins for its own needs.’ From a short blog post by Dr Clifford Lynch from the CNI which is well worth reading.

People often criticise Machine Learning for being biased. But bias and mis-representation is essentially due to embedded bias in the input training data. The algorithm learns with what it has. So one of the key tasks for us as an archives community is to think about training data. We need algorithms that are trained to work for us to give us useful outputs.

Gathering training data in order to create useful models is going to be a challenge. Machine Learning is not like anything else that we have done before – we don’t actually know what we’ll get – we just know that we need to give the algorithm data that educates it in the way that we want. A bit like a child in school, we can teach it the curriculum, but we don’t know if it will pass the exam.

It certainly seems a given that we will need to use well labelled archival material as training data, so that the model is tailored specifically to the material we have. We will need to work together to provide this scale of training data. We have many wonderfully catalogued collections, with detail down to item level; as well as many collections that are catalogued quite basically, maybe just at collection level. If we join together as a community and utilise the well-catalogued content to train algorithms, we may be able to achieve something really useful to help make all collections more discoverable.

If an algorithm is trained on a fairly narrow set of data, then it is questionable whether it will have broad applicability. For example, if we train an algorithm on letters written in the 18th century, but just authored by two or three people, then it is unlikely to learn enough to be of real use with transcription; but if we train it on the handwriting of fifty people or more, then it could be a really useful tool for recognising and transcribing 18th century letters To do this training, we will need to bring content together. We will need to share the Machine Learning journey. The benefits could be massive in terms of discoverability of archives; effective discovery for all those materials that we currently don’t have time to catalogue. The main danger is that the resulting identification, transcription, tagging or whatever, is not to the standard that we want. We can only experiment and see what happens if we trial ML with a set of data (which is what we are doing now with our Labs project). One benefit could actually be much more consistency across collections. As someone working on aggregating data from 350 organisations, I can testify that we are not consistent! – and this lack of consistency impairs discovery.

Archival content is likely to be distinct in terms of both quality and subject. Typescripts might be old and faded, manuscripts might be hard to read, photographs might be black and white and not as high resolution as modern prints. Photographs might be of historical artefacts that are not recognised by most algorithms. We have specific challenges with our material, and we need the algorithms to learn from our material, in order to then provide something useful as we input more content.

In terms of subject, the Lotus and Delta shoe shops are a good example of a specific topic. They are represented in the Joseph Emberton papers, at the University of Brighton Design Archives, with a series of photographs. Architecture is potentially an interesting area to focus on. ML could give us some outputs that provide information on architectural features. It could be that the design of Lotus and Delta shops can be connected to other shops with similar architectures and shop fronts. ML may pick out features that a cataloguer may not include. On the other hand, we may find that it is extremely hard to train an algorithm on old black and white and potentially low resolution photographs in order for it to learn what a shop is, and maybe what a shoe shop is.

In this collection a number of the photographs are of exteriors. Some are identified by location, and some are not yet identified.

photo of Emberton shoe shop, Harrogate
Harrogate
Photo of Edinburgh shoe shop exterior
Edinburgh
Photo of unidentified shoe shop
Unidentified shop

These photographs have been catalogued to item level, and so researchers will be able to find these when searching for ‘shops’ and particularly ‘shoe shops’ on the Hub, e.g. a search for ‘harrogate shoe shop‘ finds the exterior of a shop front in Harrogate. There may not be much more that could be provided for searching this collection, unless machine learning could label the type of shop front, the type of windows and signage for example. This seems very challenging with these old photographs, but presumably not impossible. With ML it is a matter of trying things out. You might think that if artificial intelligence can master self-driving cars it can master shop exteriors….but it is not a foregone conclusion.

If the model was trained with this set of photographs, then other shop fronts could potentially be identified in photographs that aren’t catalogued individually. We could potentially end up with collections from many different archives tagged with ‘shop front’ and potentially with ‘shoes’. Whether an unidentified shop front could be be identified is less certain, unless there are definite contextual features to work with.

interior of ladies department shoe shop
Interior of ladies’ dept.
photograph of shoe shop interior
Interior of men’s dept.

Shop interiors are likely to be even more of a challenge. But it will be exciting to try things like this out and see what we get.

Commercial providers offer black box solutions, and we can be sure they were not trained to work well with archives. They may be adapted to new situations, but it is unlikely they can ever work effectively for archival content. I explored this to an extent in my last blog post. However, it is worth considering that a model not trained on archival material may highlight objects or topics that we would not think of including in a catalogue entry.

The Archives Hub and Jisc could play a pivotal role in co-ordinating work to create better models for archival material. Aggregation allows for providing more training material, and thus creating more effective models.

To date, most ML projects in libraries have required bespoke data annotation to create sufficient training data. Reproducing this work for every ML project, however, risks wasting both time and labor, and there are ample opportunities for scholars to share and build upon each other’s work.’ (R. Cordell, LC Labs report)

We can have a role to play in ‘data gathering, sharing, annotation, ethics monitoring, and record-keeping processes‘ (Eun Seo Jo, Timnit Gebru, https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.10389). We will need to think about how to bring our contributors into the loop in order to check and feedback on the ML outputs. This is a non-trivial part of the process that we are considering at the moment. We need an interface that displays the results of our ML trials.

One of the interesting aspects of this is that collections that have been catalogued in detail will provide the training data for collections that are not. Will this prove to be a barrier, or will it bring us together as a community? In theory the resources that some archives have, which have enabled them to catalogue to item level, can benefit those with minimal resources. Would this be a free and open exchange, or would we start to see a commercial framework developing?

It is also important that we don’t ignore the catalogue entries from our 350 contributors. Catalogues could provide great fodder for ML – we could start to establish connections and commonalities and increase the utility of the catalogues considerably.

The issue of how to incorporate the results of ML into the end user discovery interface is yet another challenge. Is it fundamentally important that end users know what has been done through ML and what has been done by a human? I can’t help thinking that over time the lines will blur, as we become more comfortable with AI….or as AI simply becomes more integrated into our world. It is clear that many people don’t realise how much Artificial Intelligence sits behind so many systems and processes that we use on an everyday basis. But I think that for the time being, it would be useful to make that distinction within our end user interfaces, so that people know why something has been catalogued or described in a certain way and so that we can assess the effectiveness of the ML contribution.

In subsequent posts we aim to share some initial findings from doing work at scale. We will only be able to undertake some modest experiments, but we hope that we are contributing to the start of what will be a very big adventure for archives.

Machine Learning with Archive Collections

Machine Learning is a sub-set of Artificial Intelligence (AI). You might like to look at devopedia.org for a short introduction to Machine Learning (ML).

Machine Learning is a data-oriented technique that enables computers to learn from experience. Human experience comes from our interaction with the environment. For computers, experience is indirect. It’s based on data collected from the world, data about the world.

Definition of Machine Learning from devopedia.org

The idea of this and subsequent blog posts is to look at machine learning from a specifically archival point of view as well as update you on our Labs project, Images and Machine Learning. We hope that our blog posts help archivists and other information professionals within the archival or cultural heritage domain to better understand ML and how it might be used.

AI can be used for many areas of learning and research. Chatbots have been trialled at some institutions, for example, ‘Ada’ at Bolton College has generally been well received. AI can be useful for aspects of website usability and accessibility, or helping students to choose the right university degree. The Jisc National Centre for AI site has more information on how AI can add value for education and learning.

At the Archives Hub we are particularly focussed on looking at Machine Learning from the point of view of archival catalogues and digital content, to aid discoverability, and potentially to identify patterns and bias in cataloguing.

Machine Learning to aid discoverability can be carried out as supervised or unsupervised learning. Supervised learning may be the most reliable, producing the best results. It requires a set of data that contains both the inputs and the desired outputs. By ‘outputs’ we mean that the objective is provided by labelling some of the input data. This is often called training data. In a ‘traditional’ scenario, code is written to take input and create output; in machine learning, input and output is provided, and the part done by human code is instead done by machine algorithms to create a model. This model is then used to derive outputs from further inputs.

The machine learning model, or program, is the outcome of learning from data (source: Advani 2020)

So, for example, taking the Vickers instruments collection from the Borthwick: https://dlib.york.ac.uk/yodl/app/collection/detail?id=york%3a796319&ref=browse. You may want to recognise optical instruments, for example, telescopes and microscopes. You could provide training data with a set of labelled images (output data) to create a model. You could then input additional images and see if the optical instruments are identified by the model.

Of course, the Borthwick may have catalogued these photographs already (in fact, they have been catalogued), so we know which are telescopes and which are micrometers or lenses or eye pieces. If you have a specialist collection, essentially focused on a subject, and the photographs are already labelled, then there may be less scope for improving discoverability for that collection by using machine learning. If the Borthwick had only catalogued a few boxes of photographs, they might consider using machine learning to label the remaining photographs. However, a big advantage is that the enhanced telescope recognising model can now be used on all the images from the Archives Hub to discover and label images containing telescopes from other collections. This is one of the great advantages of applying ML across the aggregated data of the Archives Hub. The results of machine learning are always going to be better with more training data, so ideally you would provide a large collection of labelled photographs in order to teach the algorithm. Archive collections may not always be at the kind of scale where this process is optimised. Providing good training data is potentially a very substantial task, and does require that the content is labelled. It is possible to use models that are already available without doing this training step, but the results are likely to be far less useful.

Another scenario that could lend itself to ML is a more varied collection, such as Borthwick’s University photograph collection. These have been catalogued, but there is potential to recognise various additional elements within the photographs.

construction site with people
Construction of the J.B. Morrell Library, University of York

The above photograph has been labelled as a construction site. ML could recognise that there are people in the photograph, and this information could be added, so a researcher could then look for construction site with people. Recognising people in a photograph is something that many ML tools are able to do, having already been trained on this. However, archive collections are often composed of historic documents and old photographs that may not be as clear as modern documents. In addition, the models will probably have been trained with more current content. This is likely to be an issue for archives generally. For models to be effective, they need to have been trained with content that is similar to the content we want to catalogue.

The Amazon Web Services (AWS) Rekognition facial recognition tool finds three faces…
…the Microsoft Azure facial recognition tool doesn’t do so well.

The benefits of adding labels to photographs via ML to potentially enhance the catalogue and help with discoverability is going to depend upon a number of factors: how well the image is already catalogued, whether training data can be provided to improve the algorithm, how well ML can then pick out features that might be of use.

The drawings of fossil fish at the Geological Society are another example of a very subject specific collection. We put a few of these through some out-of-the-box ML tools. These tools have been pre-trained on large diverse datasets, but we have not done any additional training ourselves yet, so you could see them as generalists in recognising entities rather than specialists with any particular material or topic.

drawing of a fossil tortoise
Fossil tortoise from Oeningen

In this case the drawing has been tagged with ‘fossil’, which could be useful if you wanted to identify fossil drawings from a varied collection of drawings. It has also tagged this with archaeology and art, both of which could potentially be useful, again depending upon the context. The label of soil is a bit more problematic, and yet it is the one that has been added with 99.5% certainty. However, a bit of training to tell the algorithm that ‘soil’ is not correct may remove this tag from subsequent drawings.

This example illustrates the above point that a subject specific collection may be tagged with labels that are already provided in the catalogue description. It also shows that machine learning is unlikely to ever be perfectly accurate (although there are many claims it outperforms humans in a number of areas). It is very likely to add labels that are not correct. Ideally we would train the model to make less mistakes – though it is unlikely that all mistakes will be eliminated – so that does mean some level of manual review.

Tagging an image using ML may draw out features that would not necessarily be added to the catalogue – maybe they are not relevant to the repository’s main theme, and in the end, it is too time-consuming for cataloguers themselves to describe each photo in great detail as part of the cataloguing process.

Queen’s University Belfast: Hart Collection – China Photographs

The above image is a simple one with not too much going on. It will be discoverable on the Queen’s website through a search for ‘china’ or ‘robert hart’ for example, but tagging could make it discoverable for those interested in plants or architectural features. Again, false positives could be a problem, so a key here is to think about levels of certainty and how to manage expectations.

As mentioned above, archival images are often difficult to interpret. They may be old and faded, and they may also represent features or items that an algorithm will not recognise.

Design Council Archive: Things in their home setting – detail of a living room

In the above example from Brighton Design Archives, the photograph is from a set made of an exhibition of 1947, Things In Their Home Setting. The AWS image Rekognition service has no problem with the chair, but it has confidently identified the oven as a refrigerator. This could probably be corrected by providing more training data, or giving feedback to improve the understanding of the algorithm and its knowledge of 1940’s kitchen furniture. But by the time you have given enough training data for the model to recognise a cooker from a fridge from a washing machine, it might have been easier simply to do the cataloguing manually.

Another option for machine learning is optical character recognition. This has been around for a while, but it has improved substantially as a result of the machine learning approach. Again, one of the challenges for archives is that many items within the collections are handwritten, faded, and generally not easily readable. So, can ML prove to be better with these items than previous OCR approaches?

A tool like Transkribus can potentially offer great benefits to archives, and is seen as a community-driven effort to create, gather and share training data. We hope to try out some experiments with it in the course of our project.

Clerkenwell St James Parish, General Plan

The above plan is from Lambeth Palace Library’s 19th century ecclesiastical maps. It can already be found searching for ‘clerkenwell’ or ‘st james parish’. But ML could potentially provide more searchable information.

OCR using Azure

The words here are fairly clear, so the character recognition using the Microsoft Azure ML service is quite good. Obviously the formatting is an issue in terms of word order. ‘James’ is recognised as ‘Iames’ due to the style of writing. ‘Church’ is recognised despite the style looking like ‘Chvrch’ – this will be something the algorithm has learnt. This analysis could potentially be useful to add to the catalogue because an end user could then search for ‘pentonville chapel’ or ‘northampton square’ and find this plan.

As well as looking at digital archives, we will be trying out examples with catalogue text. A great deal of archival cataloguing is legacy data, and archivists do not always have the time to catalogue to item level or to add index terms, which can substantially aid discoverability. So, it is tempting to look at ML as a means to substantially improve our catalogues. For example, to add to our index terms, which provide structured access points for end users searching for people, organisations, places and subjects.

In a traditional approach to adding subject terms to a catalogue, you might write rules. We have done this in our Names Project – we have written a whole load of rules in order to identify name, life dates, and additional data within index terms. We could have written even more rules – for example, to try to identify forename and surname. But it would be very difficult because the data does not present the elements of names consistently. We could potentially train an ML model with a load of names, tagging the parts of the name as forename, surname, dates, titles, epithets. But could an algorithm then successfully work out the parts of any subsequent names that we feed into it? It seems unlikely because there is no real consistency in how cataloguers input names. The algorithm might learn, for example, that a word, then a comma, then another word is surname, forename (Roberts, Elizabeth). But two words followed by a comma and another word could be surname + forename or forename + surname, (Vaughan Williams, Ralph; Gerald Finzi, composer). In this scenario, the best option may be to aim to use source data (e.g. the Virtual International Authority File) to compare our data to, rather than try to train a machine to learn patterns, when there really isn’t a model to provide the input.

We may find that analysing text within a catalogue offers more promise.

Part of the admin history for the British Linen Company archive at Lloyds

Here is an example from an administrative history of the British Linen Group, a collection held by Lloyds Banking Group. The entity recognition is pretty good – people’s names, organisations, dates, places, occupations and other entities can be picked out fairly successfully from catalogues. Of course that is only the first step; it is how to then use that information that is the main issue. You would not necessarily want to apply the terms as index terms for example, as they may not be what the collection is substantially about. But from the above example you could easily imagine tagging all the place names with a ‘place’ tag, so that a place search could find them. So, a general search for Stranraer would obviously find this catalogue entry, but if you could identify it as a place name it could be included in the more specific place name search.

With machine learning it is very difficult and sometimes impossible to understand exactly what is happening and why. By definition, the machine learns and modifies its output. Whilst you can provide training data to give inputs and desired outputs, machine learning will always be just that….a machine learning as it goes along, and not simply working through a programme that a human has written. Supervised learning provides for the most control over the outputs. Unsupervised learning, and deep learning, are where you have much less control (we’ll come onto those in later posts).

It is only by understanding the algorithms and what they are doing that you can set up your environment for the best results. But that is where things can get very complicated. We are going to try to run some experiments where we do prepare the data, but learning how to do this is a non-trivial task. Hence one of the questions we are asking is ‘is Machine Learning worth the effort required in order to improve archival discoverability?’ We hope to get at least some way along the road to answering that question.

There are, of course, other pressing questions, not least the issue of bias, and concerns about energy use with machine learning as well as how to preserve the processes and outputs of ML and document the decision making. But there could be big wins in terms of saving time that can then be dedicated to other tasks. The increasing volumes of data that we have to process may make this a necessity. We hope to touch upon some of these areas, but this is a fairly small scale project and Machine Learning it is one huge topic.

Images and Machine Learning Project

Under our new Labs umbrella, we have started a new project, ‘Images and Machine Learning’ it has three distinct and related strands.

screenshot with bullet points to describe the DAO store, IIIF and Machine Learning
The three themes of the project

We will be working on these themes with ten participants, who already contribute to the Archives Hub, and who have expressed an interest in one or more of these strands: Cardiff University, Bangor University, Brighton Design Archives at the University of Brighton, Queens University Belfast, the University of Hull, the Borthwick Institute for Archives at the University of York, the Geological Society, the Paul Mellon Centre, Lambeth Palace (Church of England) and Lloyds Bank.

This project is not about pre-selecting participants or content that meet any kind of criteria. The point is to work with a whole variety of descriptions and images, and not in any sense to ‘cherry pick’ descriptions or images in order to make our lives easier. We want a realistic sense of what is required to implement digital storage and IIIF display, and we want to see how machine learning tools work with a range of content. Some of the participants will be able to dedicate more time to the project, others will have very little time, some will have technical experience, others won’t. A successful implementation that runs beyond our project and into service will need to fit in with our contributors needs and limitations. It is problematic to run a project that asks for unrealistic amounts of time from people that will not be achievable long-term, as trying to turn a project into a service is not likely to work.

DAO Store

Over the years we have been asked a number of times about hosting content for our contributors. Whilst there are already options available for hosting, there are issues of cost, technical support, fit for purpose-ness, trust and security for archives that are not necessarily easily met.

Jisc can potentially provide a digital object store that is relatively inexpensive, integrated with the current Archives Hub tools and interfaces, and designed specifically to meet our own contributors’ requirements. In order to explore this proposal, we are going to invest some resource into modifying our current administrative interface, the CIIM, to enable the ingest of digital content.

We spent some time looking at the feasibility of integrating an archival digital object store with the current Jisc Preservation Service. However, for various reasons this did not prove to be a practical solution. One of the main issues is the particular nature of archives as hierarchical multi-level collections. Archival metadata has its own particular requirements. The CIIM is already set up to work with EAD descriptions and by using the CIIM we have full control over the metadata so that we can design it to meet the needs of archives. It also allows us to more easily think about enabling IIIF (see below).

The idea is that contributors use the CIIM to upload content and attach metadata. They can then organise and search their content, and publish it, in order to give it web address URIs that can be added to their archival descriptions – both in the Archives Hub and elsewhere.

It should be noted that this store is not designed to be a preservation solution. As said, Jisc already provides this service, and there are many other services available. This is a store for access and use, and for providing IIIF enabled content.

The metadata fields have not yet been finalised, but we have a working proposal and some thoughts about each field.

Titlemandatory? individual vs batch?
Datespreferably structured, options for approx. and not dated.
Licencepossibly a URI. option to add institution’s rights statement.
Resource typecontrolled list. values to be determined with participants. could upload a thesaurus. could try ML to identify type.
Keywordsfree text
Taggingenable digital objects to be grouped e.g by topic or e.g. ‘to do’ to indicate work is required
Statusunpublished/published. May refer to IIIF enabled.
URLunique URI of image (at individual level)
Proposed fields for the Digital Object Store

We need to think about the workflow and user interface. The images would be uploaded and not published by default, so that they would only be available to the DAO Store user at that point. On publication, they would be available at a designated URL. Would we then give the option to re-size? Would we set a maximum size? How would this fit in with IIIF and the preference for images of a higher resolution? We will certainly need to think about how to handle low resolution images.

International Image Interoperability Framework

IIIF is a framework that enables images to be viewed in any IIIF viewer. Typically, they can be sequenced, such as for a book, and they are zoomable to a very high resolution. At the heart of IIIF is the principle that organisations expose images over the web in a way that allows researchers to use images from anywhere, using any platform that speaks IIIF. This means a researcher can group images for their own research purposes, and very easily compare them. IIIF promotes the idea of fully open digital content, and works best with high resolution images.

There are a number of demos here: https://matienzo.org/iiif-archives-demo/

And here is a demo provided by Project Mirador: http://projectmirador.org/demo/

An example from the University of Cambridge: https://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-RGO-00014-00051/358

And one from the University of Manchester: https://www.digitalcollections.manchester.ac.uk/collections/ruskin/1

There are very good reasons for the Archives Hub to get involved in IIIF, but there are challenges being an aggregator that individual institutions don’t face, or at least not to the same degree. We won’t know what digital content we will receive, so we have to think about how to work with images of varying resolutions. Our contributors will have different preferences for the interface and functionality. On the plus side, we are a large and established service, with technical expertise and good relationships with our contributors. We can potentially help smaller and less well-resourced institutions into this world. In addition, we are well positioned to establish a community of use, to share experiences and challenges.

One thing that we are very convinced by: IIIF is a really effective way to surface digital content and it is an enormous boon to researchers. So, it makes total sense for us to move into this area. With this in mind, Jisc has become a member of the IIIF Consortium, and we aim to take advantage of the knowledge and experience within the community – and to contribute to it.

Machine Learning

This is a huge area, and it can feel rather daunting. It is also very complicated, and we are under no illusions that it will be a long road, probably with plenty of blind alleys. It is very exciting, but not without big challenges.

It seems as if ML is getting a bad reputation lately, with the idea that algorithms make decisions that are often unfair or unjust, or that are clearly biased. But the main issue lies with the data. ML is about machines learning from data, and if the data is inadequate, biased, or suspect in some way, then the outcomes are not likely to be good. ML offers us a big opportunity to analyse our data. It can help us surface bias and problematic cataloguing.

We want to take the descriptions and images that our participants provide and see what we can do with ML tools. Obviously we won’t do anything that affects the data without consulting with our contributors. But it is best with ML to have a large amount of data, and so this is an area where an aggregator has an advantage.

This area is truly exploratory. We are not aiming for anything other than the broad idea of improved discoverability. We will see if ML can help identify entities, such as people, places and concepts. But we are also open to looking at the results of ML and thinking about how we might benefit from them. We may conclude that ML only has limited use for us – at least, as it stands now. But it is changing all the time, and becoming more sophisticated. It is something that will only grow and become more embedded within cultural heritage.

Over the next several months we will be blogging about the project, and we would be very pleased to receive feedback and thoughts. We will also be holding some webinar sessions. These will be advertised to contributors via our contributors list, and advertised on the JiscMail archives-nra list.

Thoughts on the Heritage PIDs Project

I attended the final Zoom session for the Heritage Persistent Identifiers Project this week.

PID or Persistent Identifiers can be incredibly useful within the heritage sector. The PID project was looking at the use of PIDs across collections. They were aiming to increase uptake of PIDs, so that they service as a foundation infrastructure for drawing collections together.

The project ran two surveys with responses mainly from the UK but a number from other countries. 66 and 47 responses were received for the 1st and 2nd surveys respectively. Both surveys showed that most institutions have pockets of awareness of PIDs, although the number of people with no awareness decreased slightly over time.

The main barriers according to the surveys are lack of resources and technical issues. It is also clear that decision makers need to be more appreciative the benefits of PIDs.

The project case studies were found to be particularly useful by survey respondents, and also the PID demonstrator that showed how collections can be linked through PIDs. The case studies included the National Gallery – interestingly they are using the CIIM, as we are, so their PIDs were created as a component of the CIIM.

One thing that struck me as I was listening is that PIDs apply to all sorts of things – documents, objects, collections, publications, people, organisations, places. I think that this can make it difficult to grasp the context when people are talking about PIDs in general. I found myself getting a bit lost in the conversation because it is such a large landscape, and I am someone who has a reasonable knowledge of this area.

Within the Archives Hub we have persistent identification of descriptions, at all levels – so each unit of description has a PID. e.g. https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/data/gb275-davies uses the country code GB, the repository code 275 and the reference ‘davies’. These are URIs, which gives more utility, as they can be referenced on the Web as well as in publications. We had very very long discussions about the make-up of these identifiers. We did consider having completely opaque identifiers, but we felt there was some advantage of having user-friendly URIs, especially for things like analytics – if you see that ‘gb275-davies’ has had 53 views then you may know what that means, whereas if ‘27530981’ has had 53 views, you have to go and dereference it to find out what that actually is. However, references can change over time, so if you use them in persistent identifiers you have a problem when the reference changes.

Granularity is a question that needs to be addressed when thinking about PIDs for archives. Should every item have a DOI for example (digital object identifier)?. Should the DOI be assigned to the collection? Not all collections are described to item level, so in many cases this might be a moot point. So far I don’t think we’ve received archive descriptions that include DOIs so I don’t think it is going to be top of the agenda for archives any time soon. It may not be something that we, as an aggregator, necessarily get involved with anyway. If a contributor to the Hub includes a DOI, then we can display that, and maybe that is our work done. I’m not sure that it has a role in linking aggregated data to other datasets.

ARKs were mentioned in the session. We haven’t yet considered using these within our system. We’ve only had 2 contributors out of 350 who have included them, so we are not sure that it is worth us working with them at this stage. This is one of the problems with adopting PIDs – uptake and scale. ORCIDs were also referenced. An ORCID is for researchers – eventually their papers may come to the archive, so ORCID IDs may become more relevant in time. It is important for ORCID to work with Wikidata and other PIDs to enable linking. Bionomia was mentioned as a project that already works with ORCID and Wikidata.

Overall my impression listening to the presentations was of a very mixed landscape, and that is something that makes it harder to figure out how to start working with PIDs – there is no one clear way forward. In the case studies presented there was quite a bit of emphasis on internal use cases, and that can limit the external benefits, but there was also a range of approaches. This doesn’t help anyone starting out and hoping for a clear way forward.

The Archives Hub has done work on identifying personal and organisational names and we are going to be blogging more about the outcome of that when work we implement changes to our user interface over the next few months. But it is worth saying that if you want to implement PIDs for names, you have to look at the names you have and how identifiable they really are. It has been extremely difficult for us to do this work, and we cannot possibly achieve 100% identification because of the very variable state of the names that we have in the data.

PIDs need to know what they are identifying, and being clear about what that is may in itself be a big challenge. If you assign a PID to a person, an organisation, or any entity, you want to be confident that it is right. ORCIDs are for current researchers, and if you set yourself up with an ORCID, you are going to know that it identifies you (one would hope). But if we have seven ‘Elizabeth Roberts‘ referred to on the Archives Hub, referenced in a range of archives, we may find it very difficult to know if they are the same person. Assigning identification to historical records is a massive detective challenge.

We have been looking to match our names to VIAF or Wikidata, so that we can benefit from these widely used PIDs. But to do that we need to find a way to create matches and set levels of confidence for matches. Increasingly, I am wondering if Wikidata is more promising than VIAF due to the ability to add to the database. For archives, where many names are not published individuals, this might prove to be a good way forward.

The PID project came up with a number of recommendations. Many of these were about generally promoting PIDs and integrating them into workflows. Quite a few of the recommendations look like they need significant funding. One that I think is very pertinent is working with system suppliers. It needs to be straightforward to integrate PIDs when a collection is being catalogued.

The recommendations tended to just refer to PIDs and not specific PIDs and I’m not sure whether this is helpful as it is such a broad context. Maybe it is more useful to be more specific about whether you are looking at PIDs for collections/artefacts or for researchers, for all names or for topics. For example, if you recommend looking at cost analysis, is this for any and all PIDs that might be implemented across all of the cultural heritage sector? The project has found that it is not possible to be prescriptive and narrow things down, but I still feel that talking about certain kinds of identifiers rather than PIDs in general might help to give more context to the conversation.

There are many persistent identifier systems. If we all use different identifiers then we aren’t really getting towards the kind of interconnectivity that we are after. We could do with adopting a common approach – even just a common approach within the archives domain would be useful – but that requires resource and that requires funding. Having said that, it is not essential to use exactly the same PIDs. For example, if one organisation adopts VIAF IDs for their names and another adopts Wikidata Q codes, then that is not really a problem in that VIAF and Wikidata link to each other. But adopting a system that is not widely used (and not linked up to other systems) is not really going to be very helpful.

In the end, we need a very clear sense of the benefits that PIDs will bring us. As an aggregator it is very difficult to add PIDs to data that we receive. Archives should ideally add PIDs as they create descriptions. If VIAF IDs or Wikidata Q codes, or Geonames identifiers for place names, were added during cataloguing, that could potentially be of great benefit. But this raises a big issue – we need archival management systems to make it really easy to add PIDs, and at present many of them don’t do this. Our own cataloguing tool does provide a look-up and this has proved to be really successful. It makes adding identifiers easier than not adding them – and that is what you want to achieve.

The Archives Hub and IIIF: supporting the true potential of images on the Web

IIIF is a model for presenting and annotating digital content on the Web, including images and audio/visual files. There is a very active global community that develops IIIF and promotes the principles of open, shareable content. One of the strengths of IIIF is the community, which is a diverse mix of people, including developers and information professionals.

IIIF map showing where there are known IIIF projects and implementations

Images are fundamental carriers of information. They provide a huge amount of value for researchers, helping us understand history and culture. We interact with huge amounts of images, and yet we do not always get as much value out of them as we might. Content may be digitised, but it is often within silos, where the end user has to go to a specific website to discover content and to view a specific image, it is not always easy or possible to discover, gather together, compare, analyse and manipulate images.

IIIF is a particularly useful solution for cultural heritage, where analysis of images is so important. A current ‘Towards a National Collection’ project has been looking at practical applications of IIIF.

The IIIF Solution

Exactly what IIIF enables depends upon a number of factors, but in general it enables:

Deep zoom: view and zoom in closely to see all the detail of an image

Sequencing: navigate through a book or sequence of archival materials

Comparisons: bring images together and put them side-by-side. This can enable researchers to bring together images from different collections, maybe material with the same provenance that has been separated over time.

Search within text: work with transcriptions and translations

Connections: connect to resources such as Wikidata

Use of different IIIF viewers: different viewers have their own features and facilities.

How It Works

The IIIF community tends to talk in terms of APIs. These can be thought of as agreed and structured ways to connect systems. If you have this kind of agreement then you can implement different systems, or parts of systems, to work with the same content, because you are sticking to an agreed structure. The basic principle is to store an image once (on a IIIF server) and be able to use it many times in many contexts.

IIIF is like a a layer above the data stores that host content. The images are accessed through that IIIF layer – or through the IIIF APIs. This enables different agents to create viewers and tools for the data held in all the stores.

Different repositories have their own data stores, but they can share content through the IIIF APIs.

There are a few different APIs that make up the IIIF standard.

Image API

This API delivers the content (or pixels). The image is delivered as a URL, and the URL is structured in an agreed way.

Presentation API

This delivers information on the presentation of the material, such as the sequence of a book, for example, or a bundle of letters, and metadata about the object.

This screenshot shows the Image API providing the zoomable image, and the presentation API providing basic information – the title and the sequence of the pages of this object.

Search API

Allows searching within the text of an object.

Authentication API

Allows materials to be restricted by audience. So, this is useful for sensitive images or images under copyright that may have restrictions.

IIIF viewer

As IIIF images are served in a standard way, any IIIF viewer can access them. Examples of IIIF viewers:

The Universal Viewer: https://universalviewer.io/
Mirador: https://mirador-dev.netlify.app/tests/integration/mirador/
Archival IIIF: https://archival-iiif.github.io/
Storiiies digital storytelling: https://storiiies.cogapp.com/#storiiies

There are a whole host of viewers available, with various functionality. Most will offer the basics of zooming and cropping. There does seem to be a question around why so many viewers are needed. It might be considered a better approach for the community to work on a limited group of viewers, but this may be a politically driven desire to own and brand a viewer. In the end, a IIIF viewer can display any IIIF content, and each viewer will have its own features and functionality.

To find out more about how researchers can benefit from IIIF, you may like to watch this presentation on YouTube (59m): Using IIIF for research 

Some Examples

In many projects, the aim is to digitise key materials, such as artworks of national importance and rare books and manuscripts, in order to provide a rich experience for end users. For instance, the Raphael Cartoons at the V&A are now available to explore different layers and detail, even enabling the infra-red view and surface view, to allow researchers to study the paintings in great depth. Images can easily be compared within your own workspace, by pulling in other IIIF images.

The V&A Raphael Cartoons can be viewed in ultra high resolution colour, exploring all of the layers

What is the Archives Hub planning to do with IIIF?

Hosting content: We are starting a 15 month project to explore options for hosting and delivering content. Integral to this project will be providing a IIIF Image API. As referenced above, this will mean that the digital content can be viewed in any IIIF viewer, because we will provide the necessary URLs to do so. One of the barriers for many archives is that images need to be on a IIIF server in order to utilise the Image API. It may be that Jisc can provide this service.

Creation of IIIF manifests: I’ll talk more about this in future blog posts, but the manifest is a part of the Presentation API. It contains a sequence (e.g. ordering of a book), as well as metadata such as a title, description, attribution, rights information, table of contents, and any other information about the objects that may be useful for presentation. We will be looking at how to create manifests efficiently and at scale, and the implications for representing hierarchical collections.

Providing an interface to manage content: This would be useful for any image store, so it does not relate specifically to IIIF. But it may have implications around the metadata provided and what we might put into a IIIF manifest.

Integrating a IIIF viewer into the Archives Hub: We will be providing a IIIF viewer so that the images that we host, and other IIIF images, can be viewed within the Archives Hub.

Assessing image quality: A key aim of this project is to assess the real-world situation of a typical archive repository in the UK, and how they can best engage with IIIF. Image resolution is one potential issue. Whilst any image can be served through the IIIF API, a lower resolution image will not give the end user the same sort of rich experience with zooming and analysing that a high resolution image provides. We will be considering the implications of the likely mix of different resolutions that many repositories will hold.

Looking at rights and IIIF: Rights are an important issue with archives, and we will be considering how to work with images at scale and ensure rights are respected.

Projects often have a finite goal of providing some kind of demonstrator showing what is possible, and they often pre-select material to work with. We are taking a different approach. We are working with a limited number of institutions, but we have not pre-selected ‘good’ material. We are simply going to try things out and see what works and what doesn’t, what the barriers are and how to overcome them. The process of ingest of the descriptive data and images will be part of the project. We are looking to consider both scalability and sustainability for the UK archive sector, including all different kinds of repositories with different resourcing and expertise, and with a whole variety of content and granularity of metadata.

Acknowledgement: This blog post cites the introductory video on IIIF which can be viewed within YouTube.

Archives Hub Training

Over the first half of this year we ran a series of training sessions remotely. We agreed on a set of sessions of 1.5 hours duration, reflecting the feedback we have had from our contributors and potential contributors about what they would like.

The sessions we organised were EAD Editor sessions – basic and ‘refresher’, exporting from Calm, exporting from AdLib, providing content using spreadsheets (Excel), using the CIIM, and a session on structure and names in archive descriptions. We also ran a session on user experience and behaviour, which was the first time we have organised a session not specifically about the Archives Hub, discoverability and data.

We have received feedback from 32 attendees. 100% of attendees agreed or strongly agreed that the sessions were worthwhile. 72% agreed that the content was excellent, 28% that it was very good or good. We had similar ratings for clarity, pace and organisation. So, overall, we are happy that the training provided met people’s needs and the sessions ‘hit the spot’.

Comments (paraphrased) included: it was easy to ask questions, focused and clear, it boosted my confidence, I am clear where I can go for help if needed, good to see export in action, presented in a relaxed manner and not too long, worked well to see the Editor on screen share, the speaker held my attention for the full 90 minutes. The session on user behaviour was well received, with comments on interesting speakers, good experience of their subject, a variety of perspectives. There is a short blog post on that session, with a link to the Zoom recording.

We asked if people would like to see us cover other topics in the future. There were a variety of suggestions, all of which we will consider. One suggestion was for a session on basic structuring and approaches to cataloguing, and this has been asked for a few times, so we will aim to run a session around this in the second half of the year. We were also asked for something on the benefits of being on the Archives Hub. We did used to incorporate this into our longer EAD Editor sessions, and it is worth thinking about making sure we do convey the benefits of increased discoverability and being part of the Hub community.

If there are areas that you would like us to cover, please do get in touch. We aim to provide training that meets the needs of the community – so we need your input!

We are also looking at running more sessions that bring together speakers from our community, such as the session on user experience and behaviour. We are planning a session on ‘machine learning’ in the not too distant future.

All sessions for contributors and potential contributors will be advertised through our contributors’ list, so do make sure you are on the list in order to find out about upcoming events. Email us at contributors.hub@jisc.ac.uk.

Remember that we also have YouTube videos for practical training on using the Editor and the CIIM and on exporting.

Content of the workshop

clarity of the workshop responsesClarity of the workshop

content of the workshop responsesUseful & worthwhile

User Experiences of Archive Catalogues and Use of Primary Sources

On 19 June we ran a webinar on user research and user behaviour. We had three speakers – David Marshall, a UX Researcher from the University of Cambridge, Kelly Arnstein, a UX Specialist from the University of Glasgow, and Deborah Wilson, a Subject Librarian from Queens University Belfast.

Link to view the Zoom recording of the session – please use the passcode : m^9xj.vt https://jisc.zoom.us/rec/share/T1HJWEHzO5jvLEoJEEjzm2ch9DhlHKiGUQGEQSzrt-jhQ6DzFUEKvyBpWuOTa-Xv.IKKYEwWG9fT5-lup

(main talks 1hr + 25 minute discussion). Slides are also provided as links (below).

The talks were excellent, and followed by a lively discussion. They should prove to be useful to anyone looking at designing a website for archive catalogues, and working with students using primary sources. Overall, there was a lot of consensus about user behaviour, which is useful in terms of sharing findings – because it is likely to be relevant to all archives. The emphasis for this session was on students and academic researchers, but we did discuss some of the challenges of meeting the needs of a diverse audience.

A few summary points that came out of one or more of the talks:

  • People may use an archive catalogue for research and also for teaching, scoping a project, marketing and other reasons.
  • Researchers want comprehensive detailed descriptions
  • They value name of creator
  • They want an idea of the physicality of the collection and the overall size
  • People want context and hierarchy, and like the idea of ‘leafing through’ material to see relationships.
  • There are those who want to get quickly to what they need and those who value browse and serendipity. This seems like a possible tension, and certainly a challenge, in terms of interface design. It may be that at different times the same researcher wants a quick route through and other times they want to take time and discover.
  • Cambridge research found that some users wanted to limit their search by date initially, but there was a strong feeling that a wide search and then filtering was generally a good option.
  • Finding everything of value was seen as key – many researchers were prepared to spend time to discover materials related to their research and worried about missing important materials.
  • The physical object remains key to many researchers
  • Saving searches and other forms of personalisation were seen as a good thing
  • Quite often researchers, especially if they are more experienced, understand that research skills are important and archive catalogues are complex; this may contrast with library databases, where they are more inclined to want to get to things quickly.
  • Undergraduates often don’t understand the different approach needed to engage with primary sources
  • Undergrads often engage with archives at the point of an assignment, where they are being marked on their use of primary sources; they initially try to find sources in the same way as they would search for anything else.
  • It is really valuable to educate students on the importance of context, the broad search and filter approach, understanding citations, evaluating databases, etc. They often don’t really know what primary sources are and can find them off-putting.
  • Researchers can make assumptions about what a repository holds, and then be surprised to find that there is material that is relevant for them.
  • A bad catalogue can put a researcher off, and they may choose to go further afield if the catalogue offers a better experience.
  • People often ignore tooltips. It is a challenge to provide help that people use.

David’s Slides: https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/documents/user-research-dm.pptx

Kelly’s Slides: https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/documents/user-research-ka.pptx

Deborah’s Slides: https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/documents/user-research-dw.pptx

A Selection of Archives to mark International Women’s Day

To mark International Women’s Day on 8th March, here is a selection of archives featuring women who have excelled and been highly influential in many different fields.

Daphne Oram (1925-2003), composer and musician

The Daphne Oram Archive, held at Goldsmiths, University of London, comprises papers, personal research, correspondence and photographs documenting the life and work of a pioneering British composer and electronic musician.

Throughout her career she lectured on electronic music and studio techniques. In 1971 she wrote An Individual Note of Music, Sound and Electronics which investigated philosophical aspects of electronic music. Besides being a musical innovator her other significant achievements include being the first woman to direct an electronic music studio, the first woman to set up a personal studio and the first woman to design and construct an electronic musical instrument.

Delia Derbyshire (1937-2001), musician and composer

The University of Manchester holds the Papers of Delia Derbyshire, composer. After being rejected by Decca Records, who said that they did not employ women in the recording studio, in 1962 Derbyshire became a trainee studio manager at the BBC. She was soon seconded to work at the BBC’s Radiophonic Workshop, which had been set up to provide theme and incidental music and sound for BBC radio and television programmes. The following year, she produced her electronic ‘realisation’ of Ron Grainer’s theme tune for the hugely popular BBC series Doctor Who – which is still one of the most famous and instantly recognisable television themes. In the late 1990s there was renewed interest in her work and many younger musicians making electronic dance and ambient music (such as Aphex Twin and The Chemical Brothers) cited Derbyshire as an important influence.

The Anita White Foundation International Women and Sport Archive

Dr Anita White and Professor Celia Brackenridge were both associated with the University of Chichester, and they were both centrally involved in the leadership and development of the international women and sport movement since 1990. The International Women and Sport Archive is comprised primarily of papers brought together by them and other leaders in the movement, accumulated in the course of their research, study and work in the fields of the sociology of sport and sport science, and their involvement as activists and leaders in the global women and sport movement.

The International Women and Sport Movement is said to have been born out of a decade in which increasing globalisation brought together women from across the world in the practice of sport. It does not refer to any one organisation, body or country, but it is generally agreed that a landmark event and major catalyst in the movement was the first international conference on women and sport which took place on 5-8 May 1994.

Kaye Webb ( 1914-1996), editor and publisher

The Papers of Kaye Webb, covering her career as journalist, magazine editor, editor at Puffin and later literary agent, are held at the Seven Stories Archive. The collection provides a comprehensive record of Webb’s career, reflecting the wide variety of work undertaken by her, and documented through notes, correspondence, press cuttings, audio-visual material, memorabilia and ephemera. Webb was editor of Puffin Books between 1961 and 1979, and in 1967 founded the Puffin Club, which she ran until 1981. As a journalist she worked on publications including Picture Post, Lilliput and the News Chronicle.

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836-1917), physician and suffragist

The Letters of Elizabeth Garrett Anderson are part of the Women’s Library Archives. An English physician and suffragist, she was was the first woman to qualify in Britain as a physician and surgeon. She was the co-founder of the first hospital staffed by women, the first dean of a British medical school, the first woman in Britain to be elected to a school board and, as mayor of Aldeburgh, the first female mayor in Britain. The letters cover Anderson’s struggle to secure an entry into the medical profession.

Barbara Castle (1910-2002), politician and campaigner

The Barbara Castle Cabinet Diaries at the University of Bradford cover 1965-1971 and 1974-1976. In the 1945 General Election Barbara Castle was elected M.P. for Blackburn, a seat that she retained for 34 years. Following the Labour victory in 1964, Prime Minister Harold Wilson put Castle in charge of the newly-created Ministry of Overseas Development. “I decided on 26 January that I ought to start keeping a regular record of what was happening”, she said. Castle maintained this political diary throughout her periods in office. In 1974 Castle was made Secretary of State for Social Services, and in this post she introduced payment of child benefit to mothers and worked on the State Earnings Related Pensions Scheme. In 1979 she became a Member of the European Parliament and in 1990 she entered the House of Lords as Baroness Castle of Blackburn.

Alison Settle (1891-1980), fashion journalist and editor

In a career spanning from the early 1920s to the early 1970s, Alison Settle worked as a fashion journalist, and Brighton Design Archive hold the Alison Settle Archive which includes professional papers dating from the mid-1930s. She was a tireless champion of the interests of women, as well as campaigning for good quality, affordable design through her relationships with designers and manufacturers. Settle sought to improve design standards in all areas of manufacture and production, and contributed to the work of both the Council for Art & Industry and the Council of Industrial Design. She remained one of the best known fashion journalists in the country.

Elise Edith Bowerman (1889-1973), lawyer and suffragette

Diaries, photographs and correspondence of Elsie Edith Bowerman are held at the Women’s Library. Bowerman followed her mother into the suffrage movement. They were both active members of the militant Women’s Social & Political Union. They were on the maiden voyage of the Titanic – both survived. She worked for Scottish Women’s Hospitals during the First World War, and she also worked for Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst during their campaign for ‘industrial peace’ in support of the war effort. In 1924 or 1925 she went on to set up the Women’s Guild of Empire with Flora Drummond, with the aim of promoting co-operation between employers and workers. She was admitted to the Bar in the early twenties and practised until 1938, when she joined the Women’s Voluntary Services. In 1947 Bowerman went to the United States to help set up the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.

Tessa Boffin (1960-1993), writer, photographer and performance artist

The Tessa Boffin Archive at the University for the Creative Arts includes lesbian, gay, bisexual, transexual and other photography projects, including portrayal of AIDS, cross dressing and safe sex, as well as notes on television and radio productions of the 1980s portrayal on feminism and AIDS. Boffin was one of the leading lesbian artists in Great Britain during the AIDS Crisis, but her risqué performances were controversial, and frequently drew criticism, including from inside the LGBTQ community.

Gladys Aylward (1902-1970), missionary

Gladys May Aylward was an evangelical Christian missionary to China. She travelled to China in 1932 and in 1936 she became a Chinese citizen. In 1940, against the background of civil war between Nationalist government troops and the Communists, Japanese invasion, and the threat of bandits, she led a group of orphans on a perilous journey to Sian. Her story was told in the book The Small Woman, by Alan Burgess published in 1957, and made into the film The Inn of the Sixth Happiness starring Ingrid Bergman, in 1958. The Papers of Gladys Aylward, held at SOAS, provide a vivid portrait of Aylward, including her life in China, and the impact of World War Two.